Tatarstan

Interesting facts about the Kul-Sharif Mosque.

e6071f48205b3d0649b8c471d16a1f711. Kul-Sharif is not a single building, but a whole complex, consisting of three parts: a mosque, a memorial stone and an administrative building. The total land area, which occupies the mosque is 19 thousand square meters. m. The whole complex of the Kul-Sharif occupies 18946.8 square meters. m.

2. The mosque was opened June 24, 2005 for the 1000 year anniversary of Kazan. It was the largest facility built for the anniversary of the city.

3. At the time of the opening of the mosque was declared the largest mosque in Europe, but in fact it was not that of any one indicator.

4. In the main hall of the mosque are books in which are inscribed the names of people who donated money to build a mosque. In the same room are giftware Qur’an in many languages in the world.

5. The mosque was built for about 9 years. Construction began in 1996 and ended in 2005.

6. The mosque can accommodate a 1,500 people, and in an area can accommodate up to 10,000 people.

7. Mosque architecture recreates the destroyed centuries ago cathedral mosque al-Kabir (13th century), which was in the city of Bulgar. Al-Kabir was a symbol of Islam Volga.

8. The mosque building has 5 floors. Lobby The main entrance is located on the premises of the Imam, the prayer hall and balcony gallery for women. The ground floor of the building forms the stylobate, it projected a female distribution lobby, rooms for bathing, dressing, and Islamic Museum.

9. Museum of Islam, which is in the Kul-Sharif Mosque was opened February 21, 2006. The museum exhibition occupies 2 halls, a total area of 566 square meters. meter.

10. The dome of the mosque resembles a hat-crown, “Kazan cap”. These hats were before Kazan khans. By the same principle were designed dome no less famous St. Basil’s Cathedral in Moscow, which was built to commemorate the capture of Kazan.

11. The ceiling in the mosque made out artists of the Art Fund of the Republic of Tatarstan. Drawings made on canvas, later raised to the ceiling.

4553359_original12. All lights, including the huge chandelier which hangs under the dome (chandeliers weight – 2.5 tons), made in the Czech Republic according to the sketches of the Tatar artists. At its manufacturing used colored glass and crystal, some petals are gold-plated.

13. All the doors of the mosque in Kazan made of red oak. And for the inner lining of marble was used, which was taken from the Chelyabinsk region.

14. The territory for the future mosque selected 86 experts and specialists in various fields of knowledge. Location is very well chosen, here, there was no geological problem zones. To accurately determine the direction of Mecca architects appealed to astronomers of the Kazan State University.

15. The mosque is named after the legendary Kul Sharif. It actually existed in the 16th century people, one of the heroes of the Tatar people.

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Legendary Kul-Sharif Mosque.

5a379c1e92ae9dd8ebacb94aa196b64fKul Sharif is a symbol of Kazan and Tatarstan, is a center of attraction for all the Tartars of the world, one of the nation’s image. Still retained the memory of one of the main mosque in memory of the people who once defended and eventually burned down. Architects restored the structure of the complex, imagining all the beauty and grandeur of the temple, trying to bring him back to his native culture. The basic idea of the reconstruction was in architecture, and was of great historical significance. After all, this is the main mosque in Tatarstan and Tatar people in all, who revived its statehood. The second idea, which was laid in the reconstruction – is the memory of the defenders of the fatherland. Kul-Sharif Mosque – is symbolic and has its own unique architecture. No wonder this mosque is located in the UNESCO World Heritage List.

HISTORY.

After a long defense, which lasted exactly 41 days, 2 October 1552 the Russian army burst in Kazan. Historians call this heroic defense, since the vast 150,000th Muscovite army led by Ivan the Terrible resisted no more than 30 thousand soldiers and cavalry. No one thought of surrender Kazan. However, the latest technical arms of Ivan the Terrible brutally forced their way into the burning city.

The fire covered the news city. Many mosque tower, the walls of which fiercely protect and defend Kazan led by Seid Kul-Sharif, almost completely burned. Last fight to destroy all the city’s defenders. Before Tsar Ivan the Terrible appeared defeated city. He was surprised to examining the most beautiful palaces, which were able to survive, and the strengthening of the city. King celebrated his victory and in honor of that ordered the construction of a memorial temple. In Moscow revived the beautiful St. Basil’s Cathedral, with nine towers (only the ninth time Ivan the Terrible was able to win Kazan). A central Kazan mosque was completely destroyed. After taking the city, Kazan was a sad look. All the defenders were killed and the town was almost completely burned down. The capital of the Khanate was in ruins, fires continued.

During the defense of Kazan Seid Kul-Sharif was the chief executive. His disciples offered stubborn resistance, but after the assault they all died heroically. Kul-Sharif died too. The mosque was destroyed and burned.

Many years have passed. And at a time when democracy was rolled out in all its glory, the public began to raise the question of whether to restore the famous Kul-Sharif Mosque. Tatar people for centuries dreamed about it, and then, finally, the President of the Republic of Tatarstan went to meet them. In autumn 1995, the President of the Republic of Tatarstan issued a decree on the reconstruction of the Kul-Sharif in the Kazan Kremlin. In the winter in 1995 was a competition among architects, who were to present the best project of reconstruction of the mosque. A year later, in the winter 1996, it was solemnly laid a memorial sign. A spring 1997 laid the foundation of the mosque.

IT IS  SYMBOLIC KUL-SHARIF MOSQUE .

The most important symbol is the place that chose to build a new mosque. This area was chosen by a survey of experts. Mosque somehow inexplicably bypassed all the many geological failures, faults and landslides, which are abundant in the rest of the Kremlin. The complex is oriented towards Mecca with the highest precision. Schools, barracks and a military parade Cadets’ School symbolizes centuries of military force, which replaced the Tatars. And here it is now built a cult center, which represents the change of different eras.

The artistic image of the whole complex has incorporated a semantic elements that have brought it to the architecture of the mosque Tatar traditions. It is symbolically reflected the legend of the tragic fate of the Kul-Sharif Mosque. The architects have also introduced additional towers, thereby bringing the mosque to the legendary image. and the dome has a shape that is associated with the image of a crown of Kazan khans.

The construction took about 400 million rubles, the money donated 40 thousand citizens and many organizations. The opening day of the mosque became a real celebration of the Tatar people. Thousands of people flocked to the Kazan flows to the eyes to see this mosque. The mosque, named after the legendary Seid Kul Sharif.

That’s all for today…

With love, your HRT Ray.

 

Kazan Kremlin

Hello, my darlings! Today’s post I want to dedicate one of my favorite places in Kazan – Kazan Kremlin.

Kazan Kremlin – the central and the oldest part of Kazan, whose history goes back more than 1000 years and preserves the memory of the great rulers and warriors of Volga Bulgaria and the Khanate of Kazan, about fierce battles, victories and defeats of the Tatar people. After the conquest of Kazan by Ivan the Terrible king of the walls and towers of the Kremlin were rebuilt Russian architects of the Pskov model.
In general, no evidence of the exact date of occurrence of the Kazan Kremlin to the present day has not been preserved, but it is assumed that its appearance is rooted in the 10th century. While the city itself was located in the Kazan Kremlin walls, and then its inhabitants have begun to expand the city to the side of the river Bulak.
Since 1236 Kazan Kremlin, Kazan became the center of the principality. And in 1370, Prince Hassan made the Kremlin residence of the Bulgarian princes and laid the first stones in the modern architecture of the Kremlin.
This lasted until 1438, after which the city was conquered Kazan Khan Ulu-Mohammed and became the center of the Kazan Khanate.
In 1552, Tsar Ivan the Terrible raided Kazan. It then began a profound transformation of the Kazan Kremlin. Most of the then wooden walls of the Kazan Kremlin was destroyed as a result of the raid. It was then decided to make Grozny Kremlin wall made of stone. The total area of the Kremlin was a bit extended, wooden tower was replaced with stone. This is only the walls could not be replaced completely – most of the walls of the Kazan Kremlin was still oak. Completely white stone Kremlin was only in the 17th century.
After that, slowly but surely it is going construction of new buildings in the Kazan Kremlin.
In 1992, when there was a formal declaration of the Republic of Tatarstan, Kazan Kremlin became the official seat of government and the president of Tatarstan. Then begins a deep restoration of most of the buildings of the Kremlin. And in 1995 it began the practical implementation of the project on creation of the Kul Sharif Mosque.
In 2000, the Kazan Kremlin was included in the list of World Cultural Heritage by UNESCO. The Kremlin is a small town in a big and includes attractions such as the Tower Syuyumbike, Kul-Sharif Mosque and Annunciation Cathedral and other equally world-famous sights of Kazan, about which I’ll tell you in my next post.
With love, your HRT Ray.

Kazan. Part 2.

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Ancient times.

According to the official version, adopted at the present time, the city was founded more than 1000 years ago. The reason for this dating is found during excavations on the territory of the Kazan Kremlin Czech coin dating from the rule of St. Wenceslas (presumably chasing 929-930 years) and became the earliest Czech coin remains of stone and wood luggage urban fences, religious objects and utensils (pad Hungarian type, women’s necklaces, etc.), as well as other artifacts dating from less obvious. According to official statements, the study findings related to the age of Kazan, were attracted specialists from 20 cities of Russia and 22 countries. Other historians believe the assertion of the existence of Kazan before the 14th century “historic bluff.”
Kazan was founded as a frontier fortress in the north of the Volga Bulgaria. In the 13-14 centuries Kazan experiencing growth, becoming an important commercial and political center as part of the Golden Horde. The growth of cities and promotes good geographical position at the crossroads of major trade routes connecting the East and the West.
Kazan Khanate.
In 1438 Bulgar fortress was captured by the Golden Horde Khan Ulu-Muhammed, the city became the capital of the Kazan Khanate. To develop the production of pottery, weapons. Kazan had trade ties with Moscow, the Crimea, Turkey and other regions. A series of wars with Moscow principality first forced Moscow to pay tribute to the Kazan Khanate, and eventually led to the capture of Kazan by the troops of Ivan the Terrible in 1552, followed by the destruction of most of the city and the resettlement of the Tatars in the marshy shores of Lake Kaban, laying the foundations of the old Tatar settlement in Kazan. After the final suppression of uprisings in the Kazan province, the city began a new era in the history – as a part of the Russian state.
As a part of Russia.
In 1556, construction began on the new “white stone” of the Kremlin, in the deserted city (the Tatars were forbidden to settle closer than 30 kilometers from the city) instilled 7000 Russian, which is on the order of Ivan the Terrible resettled entire large villages from different Russian cities, Kazan Tatars were deported to the wall wooden tenements Kazan Bulak channel for putting, thus beginning a unique area – Old Tatar settlement. At the turn of the 16th and 17th centuries Kazan was founded one of the first printing plants in Russia. In the 17th century the city experienced economic growth, laid the craft villages, the first factory. In 1708, Kazan became the capital of the largest province of Kazan. Since the 60s of the 18th century building of the city takes orderly appeared wooden bridge, bridges over Bulak and Kazanka. Total in Kazan at the end of the 18th century there were about 22 thousand people, and a suburban Sloboda – more than 40 thousand, and of these, only about ten percent – the Tatars. The city became educational and cultural center of the Volga region: in 1758 in Kazan, opened Russia’s first provincial high school, in 1771 – the first madrasa, in 1791 there was a permanent theater. An important development was the establishment in 1804, the University of Kazan – the third in Russia – has secured the status of a major city center of science. In the second half of the 19th century, there have been significant changes in the infrastructure of Kazan: there were gas in 1874 and electric lighting in 1897, tram in 1875 and electric tram in 1899, the telegraph in 1859, and the telephone in 1881.
The 20th century of our time.
In the 20th century the city had expected large shocks. Kazan became one of the centers of the revolution, in 1918, out of town during the civil wars were fought fierce battles. In 1920, he signed a decree on the formation of the Tatar Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic with the capital of Kazan. In the 1930s began the intensive industrialization of the city, accompanied by rapid population growth. Were built new businesses, commissioned a new combined heat and power. During the Great Patriotic War were evacuated to Kazan large plants (including the Moscow Aviation Plant named after Gorbunov, Voronezh motostroitelny plant) transferred part of the USSR Academy of Sciences; industrial enterprises were transferred to military production for the war effort. After World War II continued the active development of the city, in 1979 the city’s population exceeded 1 million.
In 1990 he was declared the capital of the sovereign Republic of Tatarstan. Since the beginning of the era of the market in the 1990s, Kazan managed to become one of the most important inter-regional political, financial, sports, tourist centers of the country. However, until the early 2000s, Kazan disrepute of one of the most criminal cities of Russia. The list of Russian cities most populous city rose to 6th place.
In 2005, it was solemnly celebrated the Millennium of Kazan, which were built Kazan Metro, the Millennium Bridge and several other objects. Kazan Kremlin, became the object of a UNESCO heritage site, the city was visited by about one million tourists a year.
Modern Kazan – a very hospitable city, which is always happy to host visitors from various parts of the world and is ready to show its sights. And at the end of his post just want to say: Welcome to Kazan.
With love, your HRT Ray.

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Kazan. Part 1.

Hello, my darlings! Today’s post I want to dedicate stunning city – Kazan.kazan_sight_6

The capital of Tatarstan Kazan – a city with a unique history. Here, as in no other place shows itself tolerant and sensitive nature of the Russian mentality. The word “cauldron”, which was the name of the city, in the Tatar means “pot”. And, indeed, in Kazan has for thousands of years, as in the pot, “boil” different national culture, religion, age and attractions Kazan direct proof.

Kazan – a city in the Russian Federation, the capital of the Republic of Tatarstan, a major port on the left bank Volga River, where it meets the river Kazanka. Kazan is one of the largest economic, political, scientific, educational, cultural and sports centers in Russia. Kazan Kremlin is one of the UNESCO World Heritage Site.

The city also has a registered brand, “the third capital of Russia”.

In 2005 it was celebrated the millennium of Kazan.

In 2011 in Kazan took the European championship in weightlifting. In 2013, the city hosted the XXVII World Summer Universiade in 2014 – World Fencing Championship in 2015, Kazan – the world championship in water sports, and in 2017 – 2018 will be one of the cities that will be held Confederations Cup and the FIFA World Cup.

At the end of 2014 Kazan got the ten most promising tourist destinations in the world, occupying the 8th place in the global rankings and the 3rd place in Europe.

Origin of name.

On the Origin of Kazan there are several versions and legends.
The boiler boils without fire.
Aksak Timur Khan decided to take Bulyar. Long I fought with him, but was unable to capture the city. Then he changed the poor, and stayed with an old woman in Bulyar. Women are known to be chatty people. The old woman did not know who is in front of her, she said:
– Here, Aksak Timur wants to take over our city, but he would take it only when the pigeons will start here with legs set on fire.
Aksak Timur only that it should be. He was very happy and told the old woman pick up all their belongings and leave Bulyar while said:
– To settle in the place where under the boiler itself will light the fire.
Nothing is left to the old woman how to pick up the boiler, to gather all their belongings and hit the road. Staying in a way, I put it on the ground the boiler and underneath itself appeared fire. The old woman stayed at this place. Beside her settled by other people, and there was a city called Kazan.
Boiler Tuybiki.
People in Shahri Bulgar lived lavishly, he was enlightened. Once the Mongol Khan named Khantimerov, Bulgars plundered, burned it. People fought very hard in the beginning. During the battle in the left knee Khantimerov hit an arrow, he limped. After that, he was nicknamed Aksak Timur – Iron Lame. It completely ruined Shahri Bulgar. When life became unbearable, The leader of one of the tribes of old Tuybika taking with him his fifteen people on a sailing boat went down the Volga. The old woman did not leave Tuybika and a boiler – a symbol of wealth and abundance. The boiler was six pounds of weight, his chain also weighed six pounds.
Rowed a boat to sail a certain distance, the travelers went ashore. The terrain they liked, and they stayed to live there. On the spot favored by dug pot, he brought them to the abundance and happiness.
There began to build the city of Kazan. They say that the pot with the chain still lies beneath the city, only to find it here, no one can.
Kazak Zhiguli.
In ancient times, the Volga lived a robber named Kazak Zhiguli. His men brought their plunder Bulgar to utter ruin. Tired of the robber raids, the people of Bulgar decided to seek a new location for the city and found a convenient area of ​​modern Kazan. However, there were a lot of snakes. Then, typing straw winter, spring set fire to it. Together with straw burned and snakes, cleared space for the city.
Where built Kazan?
It has long been on the Bulgarian state raided various hordes, there were big battles and battles. Most of them wins the Bulgars. But one day, a huge horde attacked the Bulgars, the city burned. Survivors people went up the Volga to the city in search of a new place. And we decided, “Let’s Kinema splinter into the water. Where is she spun – zavertitsya, live there.”
Splinter twirled in the place where now stands Kazan. They built the city, and left to live.
The place where the boiler is boiled.
Once planned to build the city of Khan. “Where shall we build it?” – He advised his men. One said:
– Pour into the pot of water, put it in the cart, we will light a fire under the boiler, and the pursuit of horses. Where the boiler boils, and built a city there.
So they did. The boiler is boiled in place of modern Kazan. They say there and built a city.
Where the arrow falls, there and build a city.
Near the village of Memi-Çallı, there is a mountain Kala. Hana built on this mountain town and loved to shoot the mountain of onions. One day, Khan, shot an arrow from a bow, said: “Where fall the boom there and build a city.”
His arm fell into place today Khan Mosque in Kazan. Arrow found there. After that, the site of the crash boom buried dog. Khan ordered to build a city there. After the completion of the city of Khan asked:
– What is laid on the basis of?
– Dogs – answered him.
– So, the city will get the dogs, – said Khan.
Once Khans between Russian came quarrels. Russian could not take the city. Then they said one Muslim:
– We have to fill up your gold, learn how to take over the city.
This man has coveted the money, he said:
– Our brother does not violate Muslim prayer, you come during morning prayers, take the city.
After that Russian came during morning prayers, took possession of the city; Muslims do not pray violated. Khan bird flew out the window toward kyybly and vanished, dropping the lake Kaban.
The base of old Kazan.
When Aksak Timur destroyed the city of Bulgar, hung and hacked people killed as Bulgarian Abdullah Khan.
After the murder of Abdullah Aksak Timur had left two sons – and the wife of the heir – hanbike. The elders of the city Bulgars, in order to avoid punishment, and it kind of Khan’s Khan’s sons tried to somehow save them from the hands of Timur Aksak.
So the elders of Bulgar, although he himself was to die by the sword Aksak Timur, with great effort and diligence immediately sent his wife and children from the Bulgar Khan and Bulyar.
Aksak Timur with his great army destroyed Bulgar fire and sword did not leave a stone unturned. Despite the fact that the residents of the city on his knees asked the Aksak Timur’s mercy and forgiveness, he never forgave. Hand Aksak Timur were burned city of Bulgar, sat around him, as well as other cities, and the people with all the women and children were completely cut. Timur ordered to collect the bodies of those killed in one pile and turning to him, he said, “I will destroy you, because you have not kept the precepts of religion, I think that the younger generation, which happened to you will also be pagan. So I told chop and their heads and ordered to throw them between bodies! ” At the same time he ordered to dump all the dead bodies in a heap, to collect a large amount of wood and straw and whole bunch on fire.
Aksak Timur long celebrated and drank blood of the people in the land of the Bulgarian. At the same time they burned and sacrificed populations Suvar, Kizlyar, Juke-Tau and other Bulgarian cities. Then he attacked the crowded famous Bulgarian city Bulyar.
Aksak Timur had one strange habit. When he asked who was sentenced to death that if he knew what he was executed and sentenced if answered that it executed for his sins, that penalty is sent as a sign from above that he Bitimer Hazrat revealed them for the edification and is a guide to the true path, He was not only pardoned and treasury, but even let large gifts.
This habit Aksak Timur people could not understand when he ruined the Bulgars and other cities. So they were Aksak Timur matter how bloody wine. But the population has understood this custom Bulyar Aksak Timur. Therefore aristocrats Bulyar to keep alive his wife and children killed Khan, decided to adopt the measure.
After they conferred on such a case, we decided to take advantage of this habit Aksak Timur. This, they said, and the wife of the khan.
Hansch was kind, brave, strong, resourceful and beautiful woman. By this it consulted in all cases, not only ordinary people, but even the “white bone” aristocrats of the time. Her advice, words, she expressed, indications of it – it all comes out as she spoke – ordered. About saving survivors themselves and their children Khansha and did not think, I knew in advance that we should take all the difficulties and hardships of all kinds took over and set to work: waiting until Aksak Timur, ruining the town and killing people, not close to the city Bulyar. The attack on Timur Bulyar to the public was the worst cholera or the plague.
Hansch, without worrying and without thinking, went up to meet Timur with his two sons named Altyn-NIR and NIR-Galim. She went to Timur, in soft terms expressed his request. She said: “The King of kings, the great sultan Hazrat Bitimer! I came with his sons at your mercy, relying on your mercy. I am the wife of sinful Abdullah Khan, these children – his sons. Yes will allow the Sultan to settle down and live in the Bulgarian land, a place where they could pray for the soul of his father. Long live our Sultan forever! Yes, he shall have the power and wealth of the world! You are sent by God to destroy the wicked in the Bulgarian land, we all sinners are your servants. Please – from us and pardon – you! ” Words like hanshi Timur. Last pardoned Hanshi and her sons, allowed them to live where they wish, and to found a city. At the request of Hanshi Timur pardoned some aristocrats “white bone” and allowed them to live in the city she founded.
They were all gathered together, they began to live near a small river, north of the city Bulyar, and there founded their city – Old Kazan.
The eldest son of Hanshi Altyn-BIC was the first khan of the city. He built the Kazan mosques, madrassas.
It was established large gardens. Khan has attracted many foreign scholars to educate people in schools, built mektebe for teaching children. He distributed to scientists from the Treasury salary. Reigned in Old Kazan more than half a century, the Altyn-BIC died.
Altyn-BIC was very upset when he learned that the dead city, founded by his father. He tried to Bulgarian state has become as great as he was at his father’s life. But since the Bulgarian people had died, he could not restore it to its former glory. Despite this, he rebuilt the remaining part of the whole Caliphal cathedral mosque and a large madrasa, called imams and teachers.
After Altyn bika reigned his brother-Galim BIC. He reigned for more than thirty years. He made a lot of good deeds. He lived for a long time – more than a hundred years and died on the way to pilgrimage.
They say that the children of the Bulgarian Khan Abdullah lived in Old Kazan continuation hundred and four years. Then they left the old Kazan and founded a new town on the mouth of the river Kazanka – New Kazan. They ruled the new capital of a hundred and fifty-eight.
Why is the city called Kazan?
One of Kazan Bolsheviks had the employee. An employee came to the river, taking with him a copper pot. The riverbank was steep, uncomfortable to scoop out water. When he tried to scoop such an uncomfortable shore water accidentally let go of the copper pot, who drowned in the river.
It was after this that the river was called Kazanka. The city, built around the river, became known as Kazan.
To be continued…
With love, your HRT Ray

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