Kazan. Part 2.


Ancient times.

According to the official version, adopted at the present time, the city was founded more than 1000 years ago. The reason for this dating is found during excavations on the territory of the Kazan Kremlin Czech coin dating from the rule of St. Wenceslas (presumably chasing 929-930 years) and became the earliest Czech coin remains of stone and wood luggage urban fences, religious objects and utensils (pad Hungarian type, women’s necklaces, etc.), as well as other artifacts dating from less obvious. According to official statements, the study findings related to the age of Kazan, were attracted specialists from 20 cities of Russia and 22 countries. Other historians believe the assertion of the existence of Kazan before the 14th century “historic bluff.”
Kazan was founded as a frontier fortress in the north of the Volga Bulgaria. In the 13-14 centuries Kazan experiencing growth, becoming an important commercial and political center as part of the Golden Horde. The growth of cities and promotes good geographical position at the crossroads of major trade routes connecting the East and the West.
Kazan Khanate.
In 1438 Bulgar fortress was captured by the Golden Horde Khan Ulu-Muhammed, the city became the capital of the Kazan Khanate. To develop the production of pottery, weapons. Kazan had trade ties with Moscow, the Crimea, Turkey and other regions. A series of wars with Moscow principality first forced Moscow to pay tribute to the Kazan Khanate, and eventually led to the capture of Kazan by the troops of Ivan the Terrible in 1552, followed by the destruction of most of the city and the resettlement of the Tatars in the marshy shores of Lake Kaban, laying the foundations of the old Tatar settlement in Kazan. After the final suppression of uprisings in the Kazan province, the city began a new era in the history – as a part of the Russian state.
As a part of Russia.
In 1556, construction began on the new “white stone” of the Kremlin, in the deserted city (the Tatars were forbidden to settle closer than 30 kilometers from the city) instilled 7000 Russian, which is on the order of Ivan the Terrible resettled entire large villages from different Russian cities, Kazan Tatars were deported to the wall wooden tenements Kazan Bulak channel for putting, thus beginning a unique area – Old Tatar settlement. At the turn of the 16th and 17th centuries Kazan was founded one of the first printing plants in Russia. In the 17th century the city experienced economic growth, laid the craft villages, the first factory. In 1708, Kazan became the capital of the largest province of Kazan. Since the 60s of the 18th century building of the city takes orderly appeared wooden bridge, bridges over Bulak and Kazanka. Total in Kazan at the end of the 18th century there were about 22 thousand people, and a suburban Sloboda – more than 40 thousand, and of these, only about ten percent – the Tatars. The city became educational and cultural center of the Volga region: in 1758 in Kazan, opened Russia’s first provincial high school, in 1771 – the first madrasa, in 1791 there was a permanent theater. An important development was the establishment in 1804, the University of Kazan – the third in Russia – has secured the status of a major city center of science. In the second half of the 19th century, there have been significant changes in the infrastructure of Kazan: there were gas in 1874 and electric lighting in 1897, tram in 1875 and electric tram in 1899, the telegraph in 1859, and the telephone in 1881.
The 20th century of our time.
In the 20th century the city had expected large shocks. Kazan became one of the centers of the revolution, in 1918, out of town during the civil wars were fought fierce battles. In 1920, he signed a decree on the formation of the Tatar Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic with the capital of Kazan. In the 1930s began the intensive industrialization of the city, accompanied by rapid population growth. Were built new businesses, commissioned a new combined heat and power. During the Great Patriotic War were evacuated to Kazan large plants (including the Moscow Aviation Plant named after Gorbunov, Voronezh motostroitelny plant) transferred part of the USSR Academy of Sciences; industrial enterprises were transferred to military production for the war effort. After World War II continued the active development of the city, in 1979 the city’s population exceeded 1 million.
In 1990 he was declared the capital of the sovereign Republic of Tatarstan. Since the beginning of the era of the market in the 1990s, Kazan managed to become one of the most important inter-regional political, financial, sports, tourist centers of the country. However, until the early 2000s, Kazan disrepute of one of the most criminal cities of Russia. The list of Russian cities most populous city rose to 6th place.
In 2005, it was solemnly celebrated the Millennium of Kazan, which were built Kazan Metro, the Millennium Bridge and several other objects. Kazan Kremlin, became the object of a UNESCO heritage site, the city was visited by about one million tourists a year.
Modern Kazan – a very hospitable city, which is always happy to host visitors from various parts of the world and is ready to show its sights. And at the end of his post just want to say: Welcome to Kazan.
With love, your HRT Ray.

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